Zambia to tax online calls.

Zambia to tax
online calls

Govt says aim is
to protect telcos.

Wednesday, Aug 15th

IOT communication protocols: Which horse should you back?

IOT communication protocols: Which horse should you back?

The emerging Internet of Things (IOT) is evolving at a rapid pace with more and more companies entering the market. The development of new product and communication systems is likely to continue to grow over the next few years, after which we could begin to see a few dominant players emerge.

But in the interim, many companies face a dilemma because, in such a new industry, there are so many unknowns about its trajectory. With the variety of options available (particularly regarding the medium of communication), there's the question of which horse to back.

Many players also haven't fully come to grips with the commercial models in IOT (specifically, how much it costs to run these systems).

Which communication protocol should you consider for your IOT application? Depends on what you're looking for. Here's a summary of the main low-power, wide area network (LPWAN) communications options that are currently available, along with their applicability:

SIGFOX

SigFox has what is arguably the most traction in the LPWAN space, thanks to its successful marketing campaigns in Europe. It also has strong support from vendors including Texas Instruments, Silicon Labs, and Axom.

It's a relatively simple technology, ultra-narrowband (100 Hz), and sends very small data (12 bytes) very slowly (300 bps). So it's perfect for applications where systems need to send small, infrequent bursts of data. Its lack of downlink capabilities, however, could make it unsuitable for applications that require two-way communication.

LORA

LoRaWAN is a standard governed by the LoRa Alliance. It's not open because the underlying chipset is only available through Semtech – though this should change in future.

Its functionality is like SigFox: it's primarily intended for uplink-only applications with multiple nodes, although downlink messages are possible. But unlike SigFox, LoRa uses multiple frequency channels and data rates with coded messages. These are less likely to interfere with one another, increasing the concentrator capacity.

RPMA

Ingenu Technology Solutions has developed a proprietary technology called Random Phase Multiple Access (RPMA®) in the 2.4 GHz band. Due to its architecture, it's said to have a superior uplink and downlink capacity compared to other models.

It also claims to have better doppler, scheduling, and interference characteristics, as well as a better link budget of 177 dB compared to LoRa's 157 dB and SigFox's 149 dB. Plus, it operates in the 2.4 GHz spectrum, which is globally available for Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, so there are no regional architecture changes needed – unlike SigFox and LoRa.

LTE-M

LTE-M (LTE Cat-M1) is a cellular technology that has gained traction in the United States and is specifically designed for IOT or machine‑to‑machine (M2M) communications.

It's a low‑power wide‑area (LPWA) interface that connects IOT and M2M devices with medium data rate requirements (375 kb/s upload and download speeds in half duplex mode). It also enables longer battery lifecycles and greater in‑building range compared to standard cellular technologies like 2G, 3G, or LTE Cat 1.

Key features include:

  • Voice functionality via VoLTE
  • Full mobility and in‑vehicle hand‑over
  • Low power consumption
  • Extended in‑building range

NB-IOT

Narrowband IOT (NB‑IOT or LTE Cat NB1) is part of the same 3GPP Release 13 standard3 that defined LTE Cat M1 – both are licensed as LPWAN technologies that work virtually anywhere. NB-IOT connects devices simply and efficiently on already established mobile networks and handles small amounts of infrequent two‑way data securely and reliably.

NB‑IOT is well suited for applications like gas and water meters through regular and small data transmissions, as network coverage is a key issue in smart metering rollouts. Meters also tend to be in difficult locations like cellars, deep underground, or in remote areas. NB‑IOT has excellent coverage and penetration to address this.

MY FORECAST

The LPWAN technology stack is fluid, so I foresee it evolving more over the coming years. During this time, I suspect that we'll see:

1. Different markets adopting different technologies based on factors like dominant technology players and local regulations

2. The technologies diverging for a period and then converging with a few key players, which I think will be SigFox, LoRa, and the two LTE-based technologies

3. A significant technological shift in 3-5 years, which will disrupt this space again

So, which horse should you back?

I don't believe it's prudent to pick a single technology now; lock-in could cause serious restrictions in the long-term. A modular, agile approach to implementing the correct communications mechanism for your requirements carries less risk.

The commercial model is also hugely important. The cellular and telecommunications companies will understandably want to maximise their returns and you'll want to position yourself to share an equitable part of the revenue.

So: do your homework. And good luck!

By Darren Oxlee, Chief Technical Officer of Utility Systems.

ALSO ON ITWEB AFRICA

Cyber theft: 'US$172 billion from 978 million consumers in 20 countries' Published on 28 March 2018

Rectron adds Norton to reinforce security solution offering for Africa.

The unique capabilities of satellite data connections Published on 14 August 2018

South Africa's Internet penetration is three percentage points above the Southern African average, and one percentage point above the global average, according to Q-KON.

Can Africa secure enough fibre for 5G rollout? Published on 13 August 2018

Guy Zibi, founder of Xalam Analytics, expands on report The Future of African Fibre Networks and what it means for Africa.